Behavioral interviewing is a style of interviewing developed in the 1970’s by industrial psychologists. The theory behind behavioral interviewing is that “the most accurate predictor of future performance is past performance in a similar situation”. Behavioral interviewing emphasizes past performance and behaviors. The questions do more than simply determine what a candidate says they will do (i.e. job activities) but give the candidate an opportunity to give concrete examples of what they have done in their past work history that helped them to be successful in their job.
More traditional interview methods would include hypothetical, cognitive, and personality type questions such as:
- Tell me about yourself.
- What are your strengths and weaknesses?
- Why are you interested in working for us?
- What would you do if you were having difficulties with another employee on your project?
- What would you do if someone asked you to overlook a problem with your project?
- Where do you see yourself in the next 5 years?
- How did you like your last job?
These more traditional interview methods have some shortfalls since they can be very closed-ended, limit further information without prodding further or elicit a hypothetical answer that may or may not reflect how they really behave. Answers are often evaluated based on the interviewer’s personal bias.
Hypothetical questions can be used effectively and may be valuable in evaluating how the candidate thinks on his/her feet with little notice to prepare, but should not be the only basis of evaluation.
- Cognitive questions are based on the theory that a candidate’s thinking, learning and memory functions are critical factors to success
- This line of questioning often involves a series of scenarios where practical problems are presented to the job candidate
- The candidate’s methods used to solve these problems are evaluated based on how effectively the candidate gathers and applies information, how they process data, and think through alternatives
- This type of interview question is best used for jobs with a high degree of intellectual content
- This type of question reveals more about who the person is rather than what they can deliver
- The answers are often characterized by trait words like reliable, hard working, quick learner, assertive, etc.
- These questions save time in an interview but are not effective as an interview technique unless you ask for a real example of when or how this trait was exhibited
In contrast, the sample behavioral questions below may result in more reliable answers on which to base an evaluation.
Sample Behavioral Interview Questions
- Give me an example of a time when you had to keep from speaking or making a decision because you did not have enough information.
- Give me an example of a time when you had to be quick in coming to a decision.
- What is the toughest group that you have had to get cooperation from? How did you win them over?
- Have you ever had difficulty getting others to accept your ideas? What was your approach? Did it work?
- Give me an example of a time when you went above and beyond the call of duty.
- Describe a situation when you were able to have a positive influence on the action of others.
- Tell me about a situation when you had to speak up (be assertive) in order to get a point across that was important to you.
- Have you ever had to “sell” an idea to your co-workers or group? How did you do it? Did they “buy” it?
- What have you done in the past to contribute toward a teamwork environment?
- How do you decide what gets top priority when scheduling your time?
- What do you do when your schedule is suddenly interrupted? Give an example.
- Give me an example of an important goal which you had set in the past and tell me about your success in reaching it.
How to prepare questions for a behavioral interview
Companies that employ behavioral interviewing techniques can use the same analysis they use to develop the job description. This analysis can help to determine the skill sets required to be successful in the job. The hiring manager should consider the following questions:
- What are the necessary skills to do this job?
- What makes a successful candidate?
- What deliverables are we expecting?
- What would make an unsuccessful candidate?
- Why have people left this position previously?
- What is the most difficult part of this job?
A sample list of skills resulting from the job analysis may include the following:
- decision making and problem solving
- leadership, motivation
- ability to work independently with little supervision
- communication, interpersonal skills
- planning and organization, critical thinking skills
- team building and the ability to influence others
When asking a behavioral question, try using the “STAR” approach. Be sure the candidate’s answer includes:
- Situation or Task
Using the “STAR” approach, the interviewer might expect the sample answer below to the question–What have you done in the past to contribute toward a teamwork environment?
The candidate might recount a time when communication within their work group had broken down (situation). To resolve the problem, the candidate organized informal lunch meetings for people to discuss relevant issues (action). Morale then improved, as did the lines of communication (result). Critical Success Factors clarify how we define success in this position
Benefits of Behavioral Questions
- Behavioral questions help determine if the candidate can prove that they’ve taken actions that have delivered results
- Behavioral questions make the candidate recall real actions and results they have experienced and describe them in detail
- Past behavior can predict future job performance
- Behavioral questions can establish a pattern of behavior
- Behavioral questions are the safest for inexperienced interviewers because they don’t require a psychological or organizational professional to evaluate
- Behavioral questions make It is very difficult for the candidate to make up stories that are not based on real situations.
- Companies that invest the time and energy in developing behavioral interviews often attract top candidates and top candidates make the company a more desirable place to work
Suggestions for Evaluating a Candidate
- Improve your ability to evaluate the candidate on his/her ability to deliver
- Base your evaluation more on specific facts and less on your gut feeling or general impressions
- Openly share your impressions and evaluations even if they are different than the rest of the team
- Feel comfortable with raising red flags
- Don’t rush to make a decision if you don’t have enough facts on which to base your decision
- Avoid allowing the impressions of others to pressure you to change your evaluation
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